History Of Thailand

Sukhothai AwesomeThailandIn English, Thailand means land of the free. Thailand is the only country in Southeast Asia to have not been colonized. This page will take you through the different eras or periods that Thailand has transitioned through.
Thailand has an 800 year period of history. Within this history, it has been the only Southeast Asian nation never colonized by a foreign power. Their are five periods in which this history can be divided.
Nanchao (650 to 1250) The people of Thailand founded a kingdom in southern China. This is, at the present Yunnan, Kwangsi and Canton. People migrated to as far as the Chao Phraya Basin. The people would settle here under the Khmer Empire’s sovereignty. The independent state of Sukhothai was founded around 1238 A.D. This gives birth to the period of Sukhothai.
Sukhothai (1238 to 1378) Thai people begin to become a dominant force in this region in the 13th century. Eventually, the Thais begin asserting independence from the then present Khmer and Mon kingdoms. This is called “the dawn of hapiness” or thought of as the golden era of Thailand’s long history. In 1350 the state of Ayutthaya placed its influence over the state of Sukhothai.
Ayutthaya (1350 to 1767) Khmer culture was adopted by Ayutthaya kings, such as Ayutthaya culture was placed over Sukhothai. Ayutthaya sovereign rulers were not the same type as Sukhothai’s paternal and accessible. Ayutthaya’s sovereigns were absolute monarchists that took the title of devaraja or god king. The earlier part of Ayutthaya, extension was made by placing its sovereignty over neigboring Thai principalities which led it into conflict with its neighbors. During the 17th century, Siam started to gain diplomatic and commercial relations with the west. In 1767 an invasion by Burmese was a success, the result was the capture of Ayutthaya. Despite this victory, the Burmese did not have control for long. A young general named Phya Taksin and his followers broke through the Burmese encirclement and escaped to Chantaburi. Seven months after the fall of Ayutthaya, he and his forces sailed back to the capital and expelled the Burmese occupation garrison.
Thon Buri Period (1767 to 1772) General Taksin, as he is popularly known, decided to transfer the capital from Ayutthaya to a site nearer to the sea which would facilitate foreign trade, ensure the procurement of arms, and make defence and withdrawal easier in case of a renewed Burmese attack. He established his new capital at Thon Buri on the west bank of the Chao Phraya River. The rule of Taksin was not an easy one. The lack of central authority since the fall of Ayutthaya led to the rapid disintegration of the kingdom, and Taksin’s reign was spent reuniting the provinces.
Rattanakosin Period (1782 to the Present) After Taksin’s death, General Chakri became the first king of the Chakri Dynasty, Rama I, ruling from 1782 to 1809. His first action as king was to transfer the royal capital across the river from Thon Buri to Bangkok and build the Grand Palace. Rama II (1809-1824) continued the restoration begun by his predecessor. King Nang Klao, Rama III (1824-1851) reopened relations with Western nations and developed trade with China. King Mongkut, Rama IV, (1851-1868) concluded treaties with European countries, avoided colonialisation and established modern Thailand. He made many social and economic reforms during his reign . King Chulalongkorn, Rama V (1869-1910) continued his father’s tradition of reform, abolishing slavery and improving the public welfare and administrative system. Compulsory education and other educational reforms were introduced by King Vajiravudh, Rama VI (1910-1925). During the reign of King Prajadhipok, (1925-1935), Thailand changed from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy. The king abdicated in 1933 and was succeeded by his nephew, King Ananda Mahidol (1935-1946). The country’s name was changed from Siam to Thailand with the advent of a democratic government in 1939. Thailand’s present monarch, King Bhumibol Adulyadej, is King Rama IX of the Chakri Dynasty.

Leave a Reply